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Community-based programs that utilize the services of pharmacists and nurses are cost-effective in reducing tobacco use and improving public health.

Pharmacists, nurses, and community health workers effectively and efficiently step in to aid cessation efforts when physicians are unable to do so.
A pharmacy-based cessation program in Northern Ireland led to many smokers successfully quitting over a two-year period, with cost per life-year saved between US$327 and US$583 for men and US$301 to US$1,282 for women.

However, smokers in the UK who received specialist one-to-one behavioral support were twice/3-times as likely to stop smoking than those who were seen by a general practitioner or pharmacist.
A structured community-based smoking cessation intervention provided by pharmacists in Thailand in 2005, which included personalized advice on smoking cessation and follow-up visits, resulted in cost savings to the health care system of US$500 for men and of US$614 for women as compared with the usual care. The program increased the life expectancy of men and women by 0.181 and 0.244 years, respectively.
Involving nurses in a cessation program increased the odds of successful cessation by 29% in a pooled analysis of 35 studies covering over 17,000 participants.

Crealey GE, McElnay JC, Maguire TA, O’Neill C. Costs and effects associated with a community pharmacy-based smoking-cessation program. Pharmacoeconomics. 1998; 14: 323-333.

Thavorn K, Chaiyakunapruk N. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programme in Thailand. Tob Control. 2008; 17(3): 177-182.

Rice VH, Hartmann-Boyce J, Stead LF. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 8: CD001188.

Dobbie F, Hiscock R, Leonardi-Bee J, Murray S, Shahab L, Aveyard P, Coleman T, McEwen A, McRobbie H, Purves R, Bauld L. Evaluating long-term outcomes of NHS stop smoking services (ELONS): a prospective cohort study. Health Technol Assess. 2015; 19: 1-156. logo
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